How do you know if your loved one is experiencing symptoms of mental illness or just the normal changes of older age?
Did you know that about 20 percent of adults aged 55 or older have experienced some type of mental health concern, but nearly one in three of those seniors do not receive treatment? (CDC; National Institute of Mental Health).
The statistics on mental illness of seniors are sobering, but with knowledge and vigilance, caregivers can stay aware of the mental and emotional health of their older loved ones and make sure they get properly treated if they are experiencing a problem.
The Facts about Mental Illness in the Elderly
The most common mental health issue among the elderly is severe cognitive impairment or dementia, particularly caused by Alzheimer’s disease (National Alliance on Mental Illness). An estimated 5 million adults 65 and older currently have Alzheimer’s disease—about 11 percent of seniors, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. 16,000 Canadians under the age of 65 are living with dementia according to the The Alzheimer Society of Canada. In fact, 25,000 people are diagnosed every year with dementia. Other types of dementia bring the numbers even higher.
Depression and mood disorders are also fairly widespread among older adults; they often go undiagnosed and untreated.
In any given year, 1 in 5 Canadians experiences a mental health or addiction problem. By the time Canadians reach 40 years of age, 1 in 2 have or have had a mental illness.
In a 2006 survey, 5% of seniors 65 and older reported having current depression, and about 10.5% reported a diagnosis of depression at some point in their lives (CDC).
Often going along with depression in many individuals, anxiety is also one of the more prevalent mental health problems among the elderly. Anxiety disorders encompass a range of issues, from obsessive-compulsive disorder (including hoarding syndrome) to phobias to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In 2013, an estimated 3 million Canadians (11.6%) aged 18 years or older reported that they had a mood and/or anxiety disorder. About 7.6% of those over 65 have been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives, reports the CDC.
Causes and Risk Factors for Senior Mental Illness
One of the ongoing problems with diagnosis and treatment of mental illness in seniors is the fact that older adults are more likely to report physical symptoms than psychiatric complaints (CDC). However, even the normal physical and emotional stresses that go along with aging can be risk factors for mental illnesses like anxiety and depression. The Geriatric Mental Health Foundation lists a number of potential triggers for mental illness in the elderly:
- Physical disability
- Long-term illness (e.g., heart disease or cancer)
- Dementia-causing illness (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease)
- Physical illnesses that can affect thought, memory, and emotion (e.g. thyroid or adrenal disease)
- Change of environment, like moving into assisted living
- Illness or loss of a loved one
- Medication interactions
- Alcohol or substance abuse
- Poor diet or malnutrition
Is it Mental Illness or Aging? 10 Symptoms of Mental Illness
As our loved ones age, it’s natural for some changes to occur. Regular forgetfulness is one thing, however; persistent memory loss or cognitive impairment is another thing and potentially serious. The same goes for extreme anxiety or long-term depression. Caregivers should keep an eye out for the following warning signs, which could indicate a mental health concern:
- Sad or depressed mood lasting longer than two weeks
- Social withdrawal; loss of interest in things that used to be enjoyable
- Unexplained fatigue, energy loss, or sleep changes
- Confusion, disorientation, problems with concentration or decision-making
- Increase or decrease in appetite; changes in weight
- Memory loss, especially recent or short-term memory problems
- Feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt, helplessness; thoughts of suicide
- Physical problems that can not otherwise be explained: aches, constipation, etc.
- Changes in appearance or dress, or problems maintaining the home or yard
- Trouble handling finances or working with numbers
Do not hesitate to ask for help if your loved one is experiencing any of the symptoms above, says the Geriatric Mental Health Foundation. There are professionals out there willing and able to help, including your family doctor, who is always a good place to start. You could also consult a counselor, a psychologist, or a geriatric psychiatrist. The important part is not to stand by and suffer alone.
With the combined efforts of families, caregivers, and mental health professionals, we can help ward off mental illness in our older loved ones and make sure they are on the right track to healthy aging.